Thank you so much Lola Elise for sharing such type of information with lovely couples snap. I am really speechless, what can I say about every click. I have best DSLR camera which on purchased from snapdeal.com and I tried to capture the best moment but I could not find that quality that one in picture. But whatever Lola Elise I am damn sure You are master of photography.
*Don’t Make It A Big Deal *“I shoot my children not just during the holidays, but almost daily,” says Bing Liem, who lives in Ridgefield, CT. “It lets me document their lives and physical development, plus gets them comfortable with having a camera around.” At the same time, Liem learns more about photography in a risk-free environment with willing models. (Above Photo) Shallow focus helps hold viewers’ attention exactly where you want it.Bing Liem
"I recently did a photo shoot with James and he was great! I contacted him 4 days before I needed to have the photos done and he was responsive within 15 minutes. He is really flexible with times and locations. We went to a few cool locations downtown that I would have never thought of. Very nice young man who knows what he is doing. I would do another photo shoot in the future!"
Like the technology of photography itself, the practice of wedding photography has evolved and grown since the invention of the photographic art form in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.[1][failed verification] In fact, an early photograph, recorded some 14 years after the fact, may be a recreation for the camera of the 1840 wedding of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert. However, in the early days of photography, most couples of more humble means did not hire a photographer to record the actual wedding itself. Until the later half of the 19th century, most people didn’t pose for formal wedding photos during the wedding. Rather, they might pose for a formal photo in their best clothes before or after a wedding. In the late 1860s, more couples started posing in their wedding clothes or sometimes hired a photographer to come to the wedding venue. (See the gallery at White wedding.)
Meet a few photographers before hiring anyone. Any photographer should be willing to meet with you either in person or by phone before you commit to hiring them just like a contractor would be. (If they aren’t you might want to think twice about working with them because that shows they are not valuing the relationship and are more likely to think of you as a pay check.) Just like when you are choosing a pediatrician, or a pre school, when you hire a photographer you are hiring someone who will be intimately involved with your life. The only way to get beautiful, true images is to work with someone who you genuinely like and trust. True images only happen when you will feel comfortable being yourself around your photographer.

Lighting: If you talk to any photographer, they’ll tell you that lighting is 90% of what makes a photo good or bad. One of the best ways to understand lighting is to hold up your hand and face your palm toward a window. Then start rotating your hand back and forth and look at the different ways shadows are cast on your hand as you move it around. If you face your hand directly at the window, the light falls very evenly and cleanly, but if you start moving your hand at a ninety degree angle away from the window, it creates shadows that make your hand look moody and dramatic. This is what photographers do all day. We analyze light. So as you’re looking through photographers’ portfolios, you’ll start to notice that we all play with light differently. Some photographers prefer really bright photos that make the world look light and airy, while others use light to create mood and emotion. For example, take the photos below. They are of the same bride, taken moments apart, but the light is totally different, and therefore the photos are totally different.


The 6fps shooting makes it a viable option for motion capture, if that is something you are into, as well — and the built-in stabilization allows you to take some pretty crispy shots — even with the jitters. We all know how it is when trying to shoot in a chilly bit of weather. Well, your shivers aren’t going to affect the image quality on this beast of a camera.
I still remember the first wedding I photographed where the bride and grooms car crashed into a Tram on the way to the park where we were going to take photos. The bride was in tears, the groom stressed out – but after we’d all calmed down people began to see some of the funny side of the moment and we even took a couple of shots before driving on to the park. They were among everyone’s favorites.
They are very similar and both are cute pictures. However, the bottom photo is much more flattering to the baby’s face. In the top photo I was slightly closer to his feet and shooting up his nose, which makes his nostrils very prominent in the photo. It also makes the bottom half of his face look larger than the top half. The second photo shows his face in much better proportion. (Did you notice his hand? I should have pulled that pinky finger out so the whole thing would be visible – it’s those little details that really make a beautiful photo.)
i love this article. I feel so much more capable of taking my own newborn photos rather then spending an arm and a leg for a photographer. I know O have a lot to still learn but my husband and I have debated on buying a nice camera to have throughout the years. What brand and model would you suggest knowing I want to take newborn photos with it. I feel like there is something out there that doesn’t have to have all the bells and whistles but will still get the job done. Thanks so much!
Baby Face Portraits specializes in providing families and hospitals with stunning in-hospital newborn and maternity photography. Our accomplished pro-photographers are very sensitive to the special needs of both hospitals and their patients. They use natural light and amazing artistry to create breath-taking newborn and maternity pictures to tell the heartfelt story of this miraculous life changing event.

Cinnamon Dreams Photography & Weddings is a wedding planner and photography studio in Dallas, Texas, serving clients in Ft. Worth, Plano, Frisco, McKinney, Highland Park, Irving, Addison, and the surrounding DFW area since 2011. This studio specializes in bridal, wedding, engagement, family, child, corporate, and executive photography, as well as wedding planning packages. Cinnamon Dreams Photography & Weddings has been featured in Style Me Pretty wedding blog site.
Hi Lina 🙂 I am so happy that you loved this post! Many find their true passion is with Newborn/Baby Photography, but aren’t sure where to start. This post is a great start for quick tips but because of all of our readers who wanted more info, and more detailed information, we created a very detailed and complete Newborn Photography Workshop, it might be something that would be perfect for you. Feel free to check it out right here. If any questions, just email me 🙂 Thanks for stopping by!
The outfits you choose help set the mood of your engagement photos, so wear pieces that feel like "you." If you aren't into dresses, don't wear one! Instead, try a pretty printed romper or jumpsuit. If your fiancé is into accessories, let him or her rock a trendy straw hat or colorful shades—simply put, you can't go wrong with pieces that channel your personal style.
Set your camera up to do one of the following: use focus lock, back button focus, or use manual focus. With any of those options the focus will not change from shot to shot. If you use the shutter button to focus and someone moves a little bit so that the focus dot hits the background, you got another “oops”. If you aren’t sure how to do this, consult your camera manual.
Safety and comfort are the most important things when it comes to newborn twin photography sessions here in Austin. We treat each and every baby as if they were our own, every single day. You can rest assured that your precious new twins are in the safe hands of one of the best twin photographers in Austin. Check out Hillarry’s article, 4 S’s for Soothing a Fussy Baby, for a look into how she approaches soothing babies for shoots.
Hey Jessica! Without knowing what camera body you have right now it is sort of a guess…but I’d look into the Nikon 60mm macro. Brand new (newest versions) are around $500 which is about 1/2 of the 105 macro…you can find used for even cheaper. If you aren’t using a full frame camera I’d actually RECOMMEND that 60mm length over the 105 anyway 😉 The class allows you, the viewer, to tag along on a professional shoot in which you will certainly see and hear Chrystal work throughout the shoot, including when she is getting the close details vs other shots/poses. Give it a shot!! I think it’ll be perfect for you.
Please come out and support the Lehighton Area High School Girls Volleyball team on Thursday, September 28th as they take on North Schuylkill.  This is the annual Match with a Meeting night, which they pick a local organization to support.  Proceeds collected this year will benefit Program of Wellness, Empowerment and Recovery (POWER).   There will…
You’ve probably seen a wide variety of newborn baby poses, from a sweet swaddle to a baby in a basket or hanging in a sling from a branch. Lots of the poses you may have seen might take half an hour just to set up, and some actually require having an assistant hold the baby in position and then editing out the assistant’s hands in post processing. Some people love these more creative poses; some people hate them. Personally I think some (when well done) are kind of cool, but I really prefer more natural poses that don’t look contrived. Since my goal here is to help you take better photos of your own newborn at home, I’m going to share three simple, go-to poses that you’ll be able to use without extra equipment (or even extra help).
5. Officially establish your business. Once you have a business name and set up your business structure, you need obtain business license or permits as required by your city or county. Although you may take photos using a digital camera, since you’ll be giving people prints, you may need to collect sales tax if you live in a state that charges sales tax. Your state’s comptroller or tax office will have the necessary forms and information on how to collect and pay sales tax. Once you have your business license, you can open a business bank account.

Your photographer may have some unique locations and places in mind for your photo shoot. Chat with them to see if those locations interest you. “I would like to take some photos by the water. Do you know of a nice lake or stream nearby that might serve as a good location?” Your photographer may have a list of their favorite spots for you to choose from.
Light can make or break any photograph, portraits are no different. The very derivative of the word photography is “drawing with light”. The biggest thing you want to make sure you do for portraits is get light into your subjects’ eyes. There are many ways to do that and that’s a whole huge topic but there are a few things you can do to set yourself up to start off with good light.
Do you ever find that when you’re summoned to participate in a group photo, you’re suddenly angling your body slightly left to hide that mommy tummy or tilting your head up a fraction to lose the double-chin? Maybe we do this because we can’t trust the photographer to take the photo at our best angle, so we try achieving it ourselves. Babies are going to have to trust us as the photographers to capture their best angle (Can you picture your baby saying, “Oh please, this angle is so not right for me, all you can see is my cradle cap!"?). Play around with different angles as you take your photos and don’t stop once you think you’ve got a good one. If you’re baby is still holding his pose, keep shooting!
[…] One more step to shoot inside, is to really zoom in on your subject. You can get up nice and close physically to your subject or you can put on a lens that allows you to get close without getting in their personal space. By getting close, you eliminate any distractions that might be around the house. Get closer than you normally would – focus on the eyes, or just the face, or little hands and feet. Get all of those little details up close. […]
I know many portrait & wedding photographers love to shoot wide open at f/1.2 & f/1.4.  However, with newborn photography, many of the baby poses can have extreme angles and you often will have better luck with your depth of field and sharpness by shooting around f/2 & f/2.2.  Remember, it will be rare that the baby’s eyes are on the same plane of focus all the time and by closing down my aperture a bit from wide open I get that little bit extra of depth of field that is often needed.

I know many portrait & wedding photographers love to shoot wide open at f/1.2 & f/1.4.  However, with newborn photography, many of the baby poses can have extreme angles and you often will have better luck with your depth of field and sharpness by shooting around f/2 & f/2.2.  Remember, it will be rare that the baby’s eyes are on the same plane of focus all the time and by closing down my aperture a bit from wide open I get that little bit extra of depth of field that is often needed.
 I sent her an email the day after my son was born and she got back with me right away. She sent me a list of available dates and times within that first week, making it easy and convenient for mom and baby to pick a time that worked best for us. Laura was also really patient during the shoot and wasn't bothered by the fact that my son was a light sleeper."
After 10 years of full-time photographic adventures and meeting some of the most wonderful people in Texas as well as documenting it for all to see, we’re proud to announce our most-recent expansion! Natalie Roberson Photography has opened a new studio in Celina, which will give customers north of our home base in the Dallas-Fort Worth area a place sit for their family and newborn photography sessions.
"I recently did a photo shoot with James and he was great! I contacted him 4 days before I needed to have the photos done and he was responsive within 15 minutes. He is really flexible with times and locations. We went to a few cool locations downtown that I would have never thought of. Very nice young man who knows what he is doing. I would do another photo shoot in the future!"
Ask about what the photographer will do on the day. It’s important to find out detailed information about how the photographer will work on the day of wedding. You need to determine whether they are prepared to stay a little later if it runs on, and how they plan to interact with the guests. Will they be taking lots of candid shots, or will they be corralling people around a lot.
Doing engagement shots is one of the crucial tasks a photographer may ever encounter in his career. Engagements shots are usual for couples who are financially capable. Couples having no financial issue are expected to have an engagement shots session. The photos help them creatively narrate their love story. Wedding photographers who are new to this field should get a lot of tips from seasoned wedding photographers as well as from a blog like www.keepsake-images.net, which has some very useful and practical tips. It would also do a lot of good if they can get some experience by volunteering as a second photographer to some experienced wedding photographers. The photographer should be capable of visualizing how he wants to tell the story of the couple’s love story. Whatever the plan is, the photographer should consult with the couple to make sure they are on the same page.
If you need more inspiration for poses or styling tips, these family photo ideas should help. If you’re taking black and white photos, find inspiration using our guide on how to dress for a black and white photoshoot. Once you get your portraits, share these memories with the ones you love and create a family photo album or a custom home decor piece everyone will adore.

A new baby is on the way! To document your the tiny bundle of joy’s life from the very beginning, many expecting mothers will choose to do a maternity photography session. Whether it’s your first baby or your fifth, maternity photography is a great way to capture this special time in life. Not only is it a chance to take snapshots of the glowing mother-to-be, it can also be an opportunity for couples or family photography.
 I sent her an email the day after my son was born and she got back with me right away. She sent me a list of available dates and times within that first week, making it easy and convenient for mom and baby to pick a time that worked best for us. Laura was also really patient during the shoot and wasn't bothered by the fact that my son was a light sleeper."
Family photos are quite possibly one of the most important possessions a family can own.  The portraits Lisa creates for you during your photo session will be prized family heirlooms.  Your children and their children will be able to look back upon these pictures fondly over the years and as their families grow from one generation to the next.  When choosing a family photographer in Las Vegas, you want someone who is personable and comfortable to work with, has an extensive knowledge of lighting and posing, and is professional from beginning to end.  You will get that and more with LJHolloway Photography.  You will want to come back to her year after year to document your family is they grow and change.

With Jessica Cook as your newborn photographer, you’ll get stunning photographs of your growing family. The studio offers digital images with all of our packages. So, you will receive your edited digital files with a print release. They also offer printing services from a professional lab. So, you can get professional prints, albums, canvases and custom woodblocks to feature around your home at an affordable price.


If you’re preparing your birth announcements, don’t forget take a look at our guide on birth announcement wording to answer all of your questions on birth announcement etiquette. If you’re still in the beginning stages of your pregnancy and not yet ready to schedule newborn photos a few months out, you can start preparation for your maternity photos instead, using our time frames on when to take maternity photos.Bella Baby is the face of hospital baby portraiture. We bring experienced, professional photographers into the hospitals to capture your baby's first photograph with a natural, artistic style. We believe that babies look the most beautiful when being held in their parents' arms or cuddled in one of their own baby blankets. Bella Baby captures this beauty by using only "real things"...natural window light, professional photographers and professional grade SLR digital cameras.
You should also meet them in person. Some important questions to ask in a face-to-face interview may include: how would they describe their wedding photography style? (i.e. photojournalistic, formal, documentary, or creative); will they be the one photographing your wedding or do they have an assistant?; will both people be taking pictures during the day?; do they have back up plan in case of an emergency?; are you comfortable with their emergency plan?; what wedding photography packages do they have?; do they shoot in color or black & white? You should ask if they have a generic schedule for each wedding (portraits before the ceremony or after), and if they are they flexible and open to suggestions. You should even ask to see a contract.
"AMAZING! Stop looking and just book with him. Garrett is very professional and genuinely cares about his clients. He has amazing prices and really is willing to work with you. I was hesitant about hiring a professional photographer but I am so glad I did because the photos look amazing. If I ever need a photographer I will definitely be hiring him again."
Couples looking for a free iPhone or Android app should check out WedPics. There are premium features available for a price, but a basic photo-sharing folder—to be filled with either recently taken pics or those taken in the app itself—comes free of charge with unlimited storage. Decide whether you want to order custom invite cards with your names, wedding ID, and simple user instructions. Or digitally streamline the process and send custom generated emails, text messages, or Facebook invites. Guests who are toting digital cameras or other mobile devices can also upload their snaps to the WedPics site. And you can even print photos through the program.
The owner of the pictures' copyright is often explicitly stated in the contract for photographic services.[2] Without such explicit statement, the owner of the pictures' copyright will depend on the country involved as copyright laws vary from country to country. Photographers who do not retain copyright of the images often charge more for their services. In these cases, the photographer provides the client with the digital images as part of the wedding package. The client then has unrestricted use of the images and can print any that they may desire. Similarly, there are some photographers that offer joint copyrights of the digital images so they can also have unrestricted use of the images for reasons such as advertising.
I'm a huge fan of “framing” in weddings. Shooting through a crowd and having the only thing in focus be the bride and groom makes the viewers feel like they are a part of the action every time they look at it. Shooting through glass, using architecture to frame, people, nature, etc etc. It gives you a super dreamy and romantic look. (Thanks Mandy Drake)

We’ve always had photos taken when the kids were newborns, but this is the first time we’ve taken them where I knew they wouldn’t be missing someone - the first time our family has been whole & complete and it’s seriously the BEST feeling! I’m SO happy with how they turned out - I love that each of the kids is captured so well through these and I will seriously treasure them FOREVER. Now, can I please just have the largest canvas available in every single one? #shameless
Pro tip: "Finding the perfect family pose for maternity pictures will vary on the age of your other child or children," photographer Amado says. "Most of the time I work with toddlers and you have to find activities to keep them entertained on the belly. The best family pose on these occasions is the sincere joy and happiness of having big brother or sister interacting with the belly. Something as simple as touching your belly while the family looks on will likely become one of your favorite memories."

The best photographs are often the ones where everyone is engaged or interacting with each other. Understand that not every picture needs to have everyone looking at the camera and smiling at the same time. If you are engaged as a family and loving on each other, your eyes will be on your family members and your smile with be natural. These are the photographs that you will cherish most because they depict your family connection and your love.


Hey Sherry! Thanks for stopping by & saying hello! I am not familiar with those editing websites (although I did just visit the homepage to check it out)…I CAN say however though, you should forget about the high price of photoshop and get yourself a copy of Adobe Lightroom 5. Lightroom is an amazing program for not only editing but easy storage/file/folder handling of photos and most important it is very easy to use. In fact, I have quite a few tutorials on our YouTube channel. It is “only” $150 or so, and I gotta say, whether someone is a pro or just hobbyist, that $150 will be among the best money you’ll spend on your photos… head over to the adobe site and try it for a free 30 day trial and see for yourself if you’ll like it or not 🙂
6. A spotter. Anytime you are photographing a baby, you really need another person as a spotter. The other person’s only job is to make sure the baby doesn’t roll off the cushions onto the floor. If you are photographing a newborn it’s extremely unlikely they’ll be strong enough to roll anywhere, especially once they are nestled inside the boppy pillow or bean bag, but you can never be too safe. So make sure your “assistant” sits on the floor within arms length of the baby.

Purchase equipment frugally. Having quality equipment is important for taking high-quality photos, but you need not invest all of your savings in brand new, high-end equipment before you really start your career. You can buy used equipment in good working condition, purchase older models at a discount after a new model comes out, rent equipment, or even borrow equipment until you are sure that your business will be successful.[3]
Dears, I am a long-time passionate about dslr photography and having 2 little kids myself I know how difficult it is to take perfect shots when you need to take care of the baby and at the same time you Re the one behind the camera. I experienced a newborn session in an atelier twice with a photographer lady which I adore and now want to go this way too and give it a try. Was waiting for a girl friend newborn in order to get some training first but after I’ve read this I am going to post a note about searching a newborn model and don’t worey about the whoke thing.
If the question is whether or not to take maternity and newborn pics, I would say absolutely take them! When else will you be pregnant? lol I just booked a package and it was about $640 (that's after a 30% discount) for maternity and newborn session. If I had a nice camera, I'd probably take a stab at capturing some nice moments myself, or having a friend do it. Also, if you're close to a university you can see if student photographers would do a photoshoot for you for cheap. If you do go with a package, you probably only really need a few poses. So don't buy into the hype of buying the files at $40 each!

Set your camera up to do one of the following: use focus lock, back button focus, or use manual focus. With any of those options the focus will not change from shot to shot. If you use the shutter button to focus and someone moves a little bit so that the focus dot hits the background, you got another “oops”. If you aren’t sure how to do this, consult your camera manual.
#1 - the umbrella is to make the light spread out over a larger area which softens it. There is a misconception that just diffusing your light with one of those plastic spheres will make it softer - not true. If you are bouncing indoors off the ceiling or a wall then yes it will - but outdoors it will not make the light any softer. Light quality is related to the size of the light source - nothing else.
Few styles of portrait photography are as tricky as newborn photos — the unpredictable infant is always in charge! The best way to ensure a successful photo shoot is to work with a local newborn photographer within the first two weeks of the baby’s life. Some photographers even work with hospitals to offer newborn sessions within a day of the baby’s birth. But newborn photographers usually recommend scheduling a shoot during the baby’s first two weeks of life, while the baby is still sleepy and relatively cooperative, especially for posed or studio shots. During this time, babies are easier to swaddle in blankets and dress in hats or headbands, and, because they often nap or nurse, can be staged with various props or be cuddled by their parents. For casual photos, most newborn photographers recommend shooting within the first six weeks of a baby’s life. Lifestyle portrait photography is more flexible and doesn’t require the baby to cooperate with multiple poses or props.

First, you have to make the decision--and stick to it--that you'll download (or upload) all your photos and videos within a day or so of taking them. It's a good idea to get in the habit of at least copying your photos and videos off your device and it really takes no time; once you've got a system in place, you can do it while watching TV, eating dinner, or playing with the cat. Why bother? The last thing you want to do is run out of space on your card at a key moment or lose your media if you misplace or break your device. If you want to keep it portable to share, that's fine. But you also want to be able to hit "delete" or "format" if necessary. And you need to commit to the plan. If you don't, you'll end up more confused, having to remember whether you downloaded something or not before you can start looking for it.
As a Dallas baby photographer, I love to capturing your little one’s personality with goofy grins and perfect pout while shooting on my all white backdrop. We will also use my collection of simple props, toys and neutral wardrobe to show off their sweet rolls and chunky little toes! All my baby photography sessions include your little one to be dressed in one outfit of your choice. And, of course naked booty cause lets get real everyone loves a nakey baby!
(Above) Whimsical Engagement Photo Prop Sign Photo Idea: Cute DIY photo prop signage that read “She stole my heart” and “So I’m stealing his last name”. Grab these free engagement photo prop printables here: DIY Engagement Party Projects & Free Printables {Featured here: {Engagement Shoot} A Whimsical Balloon-Themed Photo Shoot | Shot by: Adene Photography}
Blankets or fabric to use as backdrops. If you are going to invest in one thing, I’d say go buy a few yards of the cheapest black stretch velvet you can find (use a coupon at Joanns!). Black velvet works really well as a backdrop because it doesn’t show wrinkles and generally shows up as solid black in photos. Otherwise, walk through the house looking for any blankets you might have. Blankets with lots of texture also do a good job hiding wrinkles, like this one:

PORTRAIT PHOTOS: these are the traditional posed photos, shot in studios or outdoors. They are usually posed and have eye contact with the camera. You can find this kind of pictures if you search for family portraits. When it’s in a studio, you can shoot a single (or a few) photos, but it can be a complete essay as well. It is easily identified because they have scenarios or situations specially set up for the photos (traditional newborn photography is an example).

In the days following birth it is especially difficult as babies tend to be kept swaddled in bunny rugs and all you end up seeing of them for 99% of the time is a little red head. Add to that the complication of the bumps, marks, scratches and misshaped heads that newborns also tend to arrive with and finding a flattering angle that will make more than just the proud parents ooh and aah can be difficult.


Know someone in your area who has gotten beautiful photos taken of their own family? Reach out and ask them who they hired! Not only can you feel more secure knowing they’re recommended, but a lot of photographers offer bonuses or discounts when you’re part of a referral. And, if no one comes to mind, you could try posting a status update, asking if anyone can recommend a local photographer.
Sometimes I find an interesting subject, but just not an interesting place to photograph it from.  If you look at professional photos, they are very often taken from non-obvious spots.  For example, a photo of a CEO will be photographed from down low, looking up at the person to make him or her look more powerful.  Or, in the case of photographing a city, we often want to get to a very high perspective to shoot down and see the whole city.
Nick Kunzman is a professional photographer with 10 years of experience working with Natalie Roberson Photography. Nick attended Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos working towards a degree in Marketing. Nick has studied the art of photography independently and under Natalie Roberson. He specializes in creative design and Adobe Photoshop techniques. Nick uses some of the highest resolution cameras on the market today, creating detailed photographs that bring life to his art. Nick is the web designer and technical expert for Natalie Roberson Photography. He specializes in the creative efforts of post-production, lighting, website design and marketing promotions.
There are many aspects to keep in mind when deciding what to wear for your family photos. Coordinating outfits for family photos doesn’t need to be difficult. You can never go wrong with selecting a few focal colors and textured clothing items, as well as considering the season. Focus on accomplishing a cohesive look and dressing in outfits that will allow your photos to take on a timeless feel.  Of course, the most important part of your family portrait is to document the love that your family shares. We’re here to help you with the rest. These family photo outfit ideas below will allow you get a one-of-a-kind portrait that has a close-knit family feel.
I am not a huge photo prop person.  However, some props will make your session easier!  We brought a blanket, a wooden crate, and a fun turquoise chair!  All of these allowed us to take certain photos easily.  In the photo above, the crate enabled me to photograph my two children who vary greatly in height a lot easier!  You can tell that my son is shorter than my daughter, but the height difference is not as noticeable as it is when they stand next to each other.
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